Sunday, March 15, 2020
CSR CSR New trends and focuses that companies are trying to employ Concepts of social responsibility or alternatively corporate citizenship have formed a predominant business lexicon hence attracting the attention of the academicians especially due to advents of the technological advancements of the 21st century. Nelson and Jane (2004, p.3) notes that, Ã¢â¬Å"over the past decade, however they have grown to encompass a more complex, multidimensional and global set of issues, with strategic implications for both business leaders and policy makers.Ã¢â¬ The current trends in the CSR, encompasses organizations orientations so as to enhance CSR integration to form part and parcel of corporate strategies. To achieve these, the corporations attempt to mainstream CSR functions to transform them into fabric of values that remain evenly integrated within the business enterprise of the company.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on CSR specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The trends focus pinpoints on the need to Ã¢â¬Å"breakdown the silos, adopting a strategic vision, implementing and operationalization of CSR on a global basis, addressing CSR as a risk management as opposed to one that can be electively be avoided and addressing social risks in the context of total risk managementÃ¢â¬ (Nelson Jane, 2004 , p.10). More critically, the modern trends are oriented to solve communication challenges: becoming cognizant of impeccably different communication demands for various stakeholders, and making decisions on appropriate strategies of communication. Among other crucial changes in the perception of the CSR concept include: self regulation and juggling regulation, solution of legacy issues that jeopardize the trust of future stake holders, strike of balance between the long term and short term business market pressures and Ã¢â¬Å"creating new forms of public/private collaboration and partnershipsÃ¢â¬ (C apriotti Moreno, 2007, p.90). Consistent with the established demands that require to be fulfilled by the emerging businesses laid on the foundation of the CSR programs, the trends include focusing of CSR on the dimension of being a risk management tool by the potential investors. They further include the inculcation of social responsibility in the investment of funds of speedily developing the component of mutual benefit fund industry and addressing the interrogative of the governance crisis matters of the corporate CSR fund. Further trends entangles taking into consideration Ã¢â¬Å"reinsurers increasingly nervous and vocal concerns about climatic changeÃ¢â¬ (Burke Logsdon, 1996, p.500). Consequently, NPF business establishment to aid the CSR programs with the intent to develop green products of an organization has chances of success due to support by various government and international policies of putting into place mechanisms to deal with the problem of environmental degrad ation.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reasons why companies do not engage in more CSR The reason why companies do not engage in CSR activities can be broadly divided into government and financial institution and reasons related to human resources. Falck and Heblich (2007, p.249) notes that, Ã¢â¬Å"the first and greatest barriers to the broader adoption of CSR practices are of an institutional or governmental nature Ã¢â¬â the lack of an appropriate regulatory framework and the lack of government involvement, followed by a mix of financial and government related barriers.Ã¢â¬ In one or other impediments to success of CSR inclusions in the companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ strategic plans are perceived to result to increased operation costs of an organization, absence of results that are visible from companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ main business objective: to involve in activities that places it at a more competitive edge through profit generation, and lack of financial linkages. Barriers related to human resource entangles Ã¢â¬Å"lack of staff (middle management) incentives, (followed by current Government policy), cultural differences, employee resistance and management resistanceÃ¢â¬ (Porter Kramer, 2006, p.81). In the light of all the corporate fare to incorporate CSR, the main ones include: escalated operating costs, hiked perceived risks, more exertion of stakeholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ interests, competitive disadvantage, evidence of regulatory authorities interventions, decreased productivity coupled with devastating impacts to the companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ profits with a consequence of diminished quality levels of companyÃ¢â¬â¢s product qualities. Current risks for in-house CSR Risk associated with the application of CSR or current risks for in-house CSR fall into six categories entangling the issue of compliance, operational, employment market, extrinsic busines s relationships, reputation and stock markets. All these risks surrounding implementation of CSR programs need to be impeccably and or closely monitored and controlled if at all CSR initiatives have to be aligned with the corporation strategic plans of operation.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on CSR specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some of the issues that need to be ardently addressed include Ã¢â¬Å"conflicting global laws and regulations that pose potential risks when organizations implement CSR initiativeÃ¢â¬ (Sharma Talwar, 2005, pp. 35-45). Omissions, violation of laws governing CSR disclosures, in adequate performance in comparison with the goals and objective of the company have the capacity to cause substantial harm to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation or brands. Other issues included in the spectra of CSR initiatives risks includes failing to give consideration to integration of objectives of CSR i nto the product , services and manufacturing process and non compliance to the established regulations on CSR. According to Matten and Moon, Ã¢â¬Å"Companies could also lose investors if they donÃ¢â¬â¢t qualify for socially responsible investment and reduce their pool of potential employees who donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to work for organizations without social and community commitmentÃ¢â¬ (2008, pp. 40-42). Worse still a company may be in operation under relationships with organizations such as supplier companies, customers, among other business partners who do not pay any concern to CSR principles. Social media reputational risk Within a spectrum of stake holders, discontent exist with regard to Ã¢â¬Ëstate of playÃ¢â¬â¢ in spite of amicable formulation of initiatives and standards to guide CSR globally. Ã¢â¬Å"NGOs and action campaigners want corporations to be legally responsible and accountable for human rights violations and CSR lapsesÃ¢â¬ (Mullerat, 2005, p.40). Strides mad e with the aid of advocating green business or sustainability initiatives, various draw backs have been registered especially when addressing social and labor risks attributable to operations of corporations and in general those who are afflicted by them either for good or bad.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Going green can solve some of the challenges. However, this attempt may not be sufficient to ensure substantial company health since ignorance to non-green CSR concerns exposes a company to reputational and financial risks. As Fombrun, Gardberg and Barnett notes, Ã¢â¬Å"This is definitely a case where going green can leave you in the red management might suffer thinner coffers and embarrassment from a CSR oversightÃ¢â¬ (2000, p.101). Adequate capacity that ensure support, provide counseling and legal advice services so as to implement and sustain effectively CSR programs to companies while not disregarding stake holders that are sought to be protected so as to maintain social reputation of the organization. SocietyÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of companies linked to revenue Focusing on profit is agreed upon by many economists to amount to paramount businessesÃ¢â¬â¢ indulgencies. This is necessary for the success of any company. Nevertheless, how does the society perceive such companies ? According to Luo and Bhattacharya the word profit serves Ã¢â¬Å"to project images of greed, exploited workers, and rich capitalistsÃ¢â¬ (2006, p.14). In the eyes of the consumers: who comprise what the company may term, as the target group for its products, have never welcomed the term profit with good regards (Trevino, Nelson, 2007, p.23). The society in most situations tends to focus mainly on cash profits as opposed on accompanying value it receives. To many members of the society, profit is attained at an expense of somebody elseÃ¢â¬â¢s welfare. Ã¢â¬Å"Reducing company profits by contributing more to community organizations is frequently applauded by the public but however, company contributions almost always are made with some hope of a return or benefit to the companyÃ¢â¬ (Carroll, 1991, p.43). Consequently, companies have come to the realization that to attain long term success, they ought to adjust their social corporate behavior enormously to levels that are cohe rent with societal anticipations in terms of norms and values. Increased corporate concerns in social interest alongside with the media in CSR Has got also the capacity to foster companies to embark on practices that help to cover their negative image before the eyes of the society. Michael Porter Ã¢â¬â perceived benefit Over a long time, capitalism ideologies had been deemed as a major causative of success of profit making organization since they are anchored on the need to maximize profits. Porter and Kramer believe Ã¢â¬Å"companies have been perceived to be prospering on behalf of the wider communityÃ¢â¬ (Porter Kramer, 2011, p.3). Companies, on realizing the magnitude of blame they receive in contributing to societal failure, have embarked on methodologies of correcting the existing gap through deployment of value sharing tactics. With reference to Porter and KramerÃ¢â¬â¢s work, companies deserve to extend their efforts beyond tradeoffs and create shared value between t hem and the society through Ã¢â¬Å"re-conceiving products and markets, redefining productivity in the value chain, and building supportive industry clusters at companyÃ¢â¬â¢s locationsÃ¢â¬ (2011, p.7). He further suggests that not all profits are equal where by profit that entails social purposes integrated within it depicts a greater form of capitalism that has the capacity to create community prosperity and companyÃ¢â¬â¢s positive cycles. How companies propose business plans for internal CSR There is no specific plan for internal CSR for adoption universally by every corporate. Ã¢â¬Å"Each firm has unique characteristics and circumstances that will affect how it views its social responsibilities; and each will vary in its awareness of CSR issues and how much work it has already done towards implementing a CSR approachÃ¢â¬ (McWilliams, Siegel Wright, 2006, p.13). Proposed Plans streams widely from the corporate existing knowledge in certain other fields for example envir onmental management and quality control and assurance. With reference to, the work of Dicken (2006), Ã¢â¬Å"The framework follows the familiar plan, do, check and improve model that underlies such well-known initiatives as those of the International Organization for Standardization in the areas of quality and environmental management systemsÃ¢â¬ (p.73). Plans are engineered to be flexible since any viable CSR implementation framework demand to have components of social, economic and environmental decisions, as the need to go green is critical. The decision making task is planned by many companies to stem from the board of directors to officials of the organization and finally to the contracted partners charged with supplies tasks. This is perceived as necessary since CSR program need be agreeable and coherent with all organizations stakeholders. As Ira and Jane (2003) lament, Ã¢â¬Å"A properly governed firm can reap optimal benefits for itself and its shareholders and in turn for those who are affected by the firms activitiesÃ¢â¬ (p.41). The plan contains six essential elements, which depending on the complexity level of an organization; some may be skipped while their implementation has already been begun. the plans entails conducting corporate social responsibility assessments, developing CSR strategies, developing commitments to CSR, commitment implementations, verifications and reporting the progress of the plans and finally evaluation so as to provide room for improvements where necessary. Competitive analysis CSR is a diverse field. In the private sector, within an organization CSR departments are placed within anything ranging from compliance, legal or public relations. In the public sector, USAID, UN, international labor organizations have all endorsed CSR career options. On the other hand, in the non-profit sector, Ã¢â¬Å"There are a wide variety of NGOÃ¢â¬â¢s, industry associations, think tanks, and academic institutions engaging in learning and/or advocacy within the CSR arenaÃ¢â¬ (David, 2004, p.57). Social responsibility business groups and Harvard business schools for social enterprise do specialize in this arena. However, important element that ensures thriving in any business venture, whether profit oriented or non-profit making is the products differentiation. Therefore, the presented idea is viable in a free competitive environment inasmuch as the products remain well thought of clearly distinguished from what is on offer by charitable organizations. References Burke, L., Logsdon, J., 1996. How corporate social responsibility pays off. Long Range Planning, 29(4), pp 495-502. Capriotti, P., Moreno, A., 2007. Corporate Citizenship and public relations: The importance and interactivity of social responsibility issues on corporate websites. Public Relations Review, 33(7), pp. 84-91. Carroll, A., 1991.The pyramid of corporate social responsibility: Toward and moral management of organizational stakeholders. Busi ness Horizon, 34(3), pp. 39-48. David, B., 2004. How to Change the World: Social Entrepreneurs and the Power of New Ideas. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Dicken, P., 2006. Global shift Reshaping the Global Economic Map in the 21st Century, London: Sage. Falck, O., Heblich, S., 2007. Corporate social responsibility: Doing well by doing good. Business Horizons, 50 (1), pp. 247-254. Fombrun, C., Gardberg, N., Barnett, M., 2000. Opportunity Platforms and Safety Nets: Corporate Citizenship and Reputational Risk. Business and Society Review, 105(1), pp 85-106. Ira, A., Jane, N., 2003. Profits with Principles: Seven Strategies for Delivering Value with Values. New York: Currency Publishers. Luo, X., Bhattacharya, C., 2006. Corporate social responsibility, Customer satisfaction, and Market value. Journal of Marketing, 70 (4), pp. 1-18. Matten, D., Moon, J., 2008. Ã¢â¬ËImplicitÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëexplicit Ã¢â¬â¢CSR: A Conceptual Framework for a Comparative Understanding of Corpor ate Social ResponsibilityÃ¢â¬â¢. Academy of Management Review, 33(2), pp 40Ã¢â¬â42. McWilliams, A., Siegel, D., Wright, P., 2006.Corporate social responsibility: strategic implications. Journal of Management Studies, 43(1), pp. 1Ã¢â¬â18. Mullerat, R., 2005. Corporate Social Responsibility: The Corporate Governance of the 21st Century. Kluwer Law International: The Hague. Nelson, A. Jane, T., 2004. Leadership, Accountability, and Partnership: Critical Trends and Issues in Corporate Social Responsibility. Report of CSR Initiative: Corporate Social Responsibility Initiative, Report no.1. Cambridge, MA: John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. Porter, M., Kramer, M., 2011. Creating Shared Value: How To Reinvent Capitalism-and Unleash A Wave of Innovation and Growth. Harvard Business Review. Web. Porter, M., Kramer, M., 2006. Strategy and Society: The link between competitive advantage and Corporate Social Responsibility. Harvard Business Review (HBR) Spotlig ht, 53 (5), pp 76-94. Sharma, A., Talwar, B., 2005. Corporate social responsibility: modern visvis Vedic approach. Measuring Business Excellence, 9(1), 35-45. Trevino, L., Nelson, K., 2007. Managing Business Ethics: Straight talk about how to do it Right. New York: John Wiley Sons.
Friday, February 28, 2020
Individual Management Consultancy Report - Research Paper Example The important observations and recommendations are with regard to the following aspects. The company needs to establish standards for various operations of the business at various levels of management and introduce Balanced Scorecard system to make the costing and budgetary control system more effective for sustainable growth and development. The company can consider installing CRM for improving the efficacy of customer service. The company has to revamp its HRD and encourage diversity in workforce for catering to the needs of the customers with various cultural, social and religious backgrounds and effective customer service. The company may concentrate on activities relating to Corporate Social Responsibility for enhancing its brand image and brand value for sustainable development. Contents I Reporting on Management Consultancy 3 Introduction 3 Objectives of reporting 3 Approach and Observations 3 ClientÃ¢â¬â¢s situation and critical comments 5 Breakdown of the Consultancy Proje ct 6 II Observations and Practical Considerations 7 Teamwork 7 Project Management 8 Costing and Budgeting 9 Problem Solving 10 Consultancy Modes 11 Confrontations and Conflicts 12 Ethical Issues 13 Conclusions and Reflections 13 Balanced Scorecard 14 Customer Relationship Management (CRM) 14 Restructuring of HRD 14 Outcomes 15 Reflections 15 Bibliography 16 Part I Reporting on Management Consultancy Introduction The performance of Sunshine Enterprises has improved substantially over years both financially and operationally. However, the problems relating to planning and management and control have also been on rise in the recent years. The evaluation of the management processes and practices indicates that the problems are mainly relating to customer service, human resources management and performance evaluation. These three areas relating management are very important and significant as it affects the day-to-day operations, planning and control. In order to ensure measurement and e valuation of performance for operational control, the standards have to be established and Balanced Scorecard system introduced for effectiveness in planning and management control. Objectives of reporting Having identified the broad areas where the management has to focus its attention for sustainable development, specific factors relating to performance in these areas have been analyzed with a view to propose changes in the organization for improving efficiency in the operations. Approach and Observations Wickham and Wickham (2008, p. 5) stated that according to Henri Fayol, management has five basic functions: planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. The client-consultant relationship under process consultation has been adopted in the project to facilitate using our expertise for directing the organizational behavior. The consulting team has worked along with the executives for observing, analyzing and resolving the issues with a view to implement changes wherev er necessary using the resources already available in the organization. The organization has been able to rediscover its ability under this process effectively to sort out the issues in relation to their needs and introduce changes in the methods for implementing them with the resources available. In consulting process, the
Tuesday, February 11, 2020
Dining Room in Authentic Elizabethan Style - Assignment Example A typical building of the period is Wollaton Hall (1588), Nottinghamshire, built by Robert Smythson; it was the first English house to abandon the traditional central courtyard and to place in its stead a high-ceilinged great hall lighted by gallery windows and surrounded by classically proportioned, multi-windowed wings. Bible box - the bible box appeared, these were small side chests designed to hold the family bible. They were later made with a sloping top to facilitate writing and reading. It was the forerunner to the writing desk. They were oak, left natural or finished with oils or beeswax. Colour: During Elizabethan times, color schemes varied depending upon the location of the home. Lighter colors tended to be avoided in town and city dwellings due to pollution. Another factor in color choice was often determined by the availability of pigments. In country areas, interior decorations were often carried out by traveling craftsmen who carried limited supplies. Paint had to be mixed on site with whatever locally available ingredients could be found. For example, the blue-green color wash used on wooden paneled walls in country areas was derived from the earth pigment terra verde, mixed with egg whites and buttermilk. It is, nevertheless possible to make some general statements. For example, during the first half of the Victorian era, walls were usually light colors except for dining rooms and libraries. The second half gave way to much more vibrant, rich colors such as vivid greens and mahogany brown typically found in bedrooms. During this period, the general feeling w as that deep, rich colors enhanced the importance of a room. Owen Jones, architect and theorist of color and ornament, published a handbook, in 1856, called The Grammar of Ornament. The basis of Jones's theories on the use of color was that it was aesthetically correct to use a complex pattern consisting of one main color and many subsidiary colors. Considerable thought was given to creating the right balance of both color and texture between wall, molding, ceiling and woodwork. Adding texture to a room was achieved through the use of wallpaper; stenciling and specialist paint finishes such as sponging, marbleizing and spattering. In most cases it was very difficult to distinguish wallpaper from paint. The simulation of various kinds
Friday, January 31, 2020
AnnaÃ¢â¬â¢s Courage and Determination That Results in Her Eventual Emancipation Essay Example for Free
AnnaÃ¢â¬â¢s Courage and Determination That Results in Her Eventual Emancipation Essay English Ã¢â¬ËYear of wondersÃ¢â¬â¢ Practice essay #1 Ã¢â¬Å"More than anything else, it is AnnaÃ¢â¬â¢s courage and determination that results in her eventual emancipationÃ¢â¬â¢. Do you agree?Ã¢â¬ The circular structure Novel Ã¢â¬Å" Year of wondersÃ¢â¬ by Geraldine Brooks, details the events taking place at a small village called Ã¢â¬ËEyamÃ¢â¬â¢, through the eyes of the protagonist Anna Frith. Set in the 1600s, the town of Eyam (along with the rest of Europe) finds them selfÃ¢â¬â¢s at the mercy of the devastating disease know as the bubonic plague. This relentless and unforgiving infection kills within days and spreads rapidly, making it near impossible to combat. In response, EyamÃ¢â¬â¢s unofficial Ã¢â¬ËleaderÃ¢â¬Ë and rector, Mr. Mompellion, imposes a Ã¢â¬ËvoluntaryÃ¢â¬â¢ quarantine on the village, which isolates them from the rest of the outside world, leaving themselves to deal with the fear and challenges brought by the plague. Throughout the testing times brought by the plague, the bravery and willpower of the main character Anna Frith is constantly evident and is the main reason why she is able to survive the plague and eventually free her self from the past, with her new life in Oran. This is shown in the novel through AnnaÃ¢â¬â¢s fortitude to over come her great challenges and fears and her constant endeavor to help others. However her loss in faith throughout the novel also plays a role in the development of her new life. Through one of the most testing times of human history, a young and timid girl in Anna Frith responds by stepping up and growing strong. She had to face tasks, no ordinary women would be capable of, such as; laying her husbands body out for burial and dealing with the mangled remains of her father. And not to mention the countless amount of Ã¢â¬Ëdeath beadsÃ¢â¬â¢ she attended. Further more we learn early learn of AnnaÃ¢â¬â¢s fear of delivering babies and midwifing due to her mother due to a four-day labor. During this labor, a barber surgeon was called in and used a thatcherÃ¢â¬â¢s hook to pull the remains from AnnaÃ¢â¬â¢s mother. With AnnaÃ¢â¬â¢s father, Josiah, too intoxicated to realise Anna was in the room, she was exposed to seeing Ã¢â¬Å"the tiny town off arm of [her] stillborn sisterÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"the pale, folded flesh, the tiny, perfect fingers open like a little flowerÃ¢â¬ . This fear is over come byÃ determination when Elinor Mompellion requests AnnaÃ¢â¬â¢s help to deliver Mary danielÃ¢â¬â¢s baby. Anna was Ã¢â¬Å"not calm, nor certain and had no skillÃ¢â¬ but was a great help in the successful delivery of the baby and Ã¢â¬Å"in a season of death, we celebrated lifeÃ¢â¬ . Anna then realised that due to the dwindling numbers of the village, it was essential that Anna riseÃ¢â¬â¢s to the occasion and start burdening some of the load off ElinorÃ¢â¬â¢s shoulders. Anna performs very well in the delivery foreshadows that amount of deliveries she partakes in, and the eventual career path she takes with ahmed bey in oran. Further more, when a young orphaned girl is in desperate need of assistance to save her family mine, Anna jumps at the opportunity. She undertakes the dangerous task even though she dreads that it will leave her Ã¢â¬Å"dead in the dark like SamÃ¢â¬ . Even In the presence of these fears she puts the needs of other before her own reservations. It is AnnaÃ¢â¬â¢s Determination to over come her fear and apprehensions for the greater good of someone else that makes her Ã¢â¬Å"tempered and strongÃ¢â¬ and allows her release the shackles of her past at the end of the novel and start a new life in Oran. At a time when you were considered lucky to not be ravaged by disease, many would avoid contact with those affected, unlike Anna who was at the forefront helping. With the ever-smaller population of Eyam becoming smaller by the day, Anna realised that it was her duty to assist Elinor in give strength to the healthy, and to also bring solace and peace to those afflicted with the plague. She started becoming an established and capable caregiver even though her official role is as a servant. Through out the novel, Anna continued to help others in the town such as Mr. Mompellion in his duties as rector, Merry wick ford with the collection of led from her mine thus saving MerryÃ¢â¬â¢s claim, and also the with the adoption of the young Bradford baby, aisha. By adopting the her she becomes more independent and does not endorse the trends of other women during that time period and does not succumb to the prejudices of society. For Anna, surviving the plague was not enough, she states Ã¢â¬ Å"I was alive, and I was young, and I would go on until I found some reason for itÃ¢â¬ . With AnnaÃ¢â¬â¢s willingness to help people during severely hard circumstances aided her in fulfilling her ambition to complete a Ã¢â¬Å"worthy lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s workÃ¢â¬ as a midwife on Oran. Although AnnaÃ¢â¬â¢s persistence largely leads to her emancipation, her loss in faith is also attributed to her new life in Oran. Religion during the 1600s played a very significant role in how people thought, behaved and eventually how they tried to explain the cause of the plague. For many, including Anna, the plague was believed to be a punishment from god, sent to rid the earth of sin. When questioned, the town rector Mr. Mompellion could not explain why God had caused such devastation. Anna is seen to start to question her religious beliefs early in the novel when she says, Ã¢â¬Å"Why I wonder was god so much more prodigal with his creationÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"why should this good women (Maggie Cantwell) lie here, in such extremity, when a man like my father lived to waste his reason in drunkennessÃ¢â¬ . When Mr. Mompellion canÃ¢â¬â¢t explain the plague from a religious stance, many of the villagers look for other scape goats and turn to superstitions such as witch craft, an d hence the killing of Anys and near death of Mem. Anna does not succumb to the superstition and turns to a thought out explanation that Ã¢â¬Å"perhaps the plague was neither god nor the devil, but simply a thing of nature, as the stone on which we stub our toeÃ¢â¬ . This loss in faith of religious explanation allows her to find a reason to live purposely and let go of all her ties and memories with the rector. For the duration of Ã¢â¬Å"year of wondersÃ¢â¬ , Anna Frith demonstrates several strong and purpose driven characteristics that allowed for her to survive severely tough times and escape to her new life in oran. Anna was able to over come her fears, put peoples needs before her own and was able to let go of her religious beliefs which allowed her to move on with life and forget all elements of her past.
Thursday, January 23, 2020
The Archetypical Low-Cost Air Carrier: Southwest Airlines :: Aviation Southwest Airlines Flying Essays
Abstract The seventh largest major domestic airline in the United States (US), Southwest Airlines, is commonly known or referred to as a low-cost carrier. Southwest Airlines is the only major airline that provides short-haul, point-to-point service in the United States. In fact it was the first airline of its type ever started; it has become the archetypical low-cost airline. The idea has proven itself so well, that other start-up airlines have based their company strategies upon the basics of Southwest. Today, there are two other low-cost air carriers (the other two airlines are considered national airlines and not major airlines) that are actively and aggressively competing with Southwest Airlines for business and profit turning. The three American low-cost air carriers are currently posting profits even in light of the US economyÃ¢â¬â¢s current state of affairs, with Southwest Airlines first, JetBlue second, and Air Tran third, in profits. How is this possible when the major six airlines are reporting losses of millions and millions of dollars each quarter? The answer to this question begins about 30 years ago. The Archetypical Low-Cost Air Carrier: Southwest Airlines The product one airline can offer is the same exact product the next airline can offer, a single available seat mile (ASM) for sale. The difference between the airlines lies in the marketing, routing, pricing, executive decision-making, and the operating strategies that each airline chooses to espouse regarding that one product. It is through these strategies that an airline must find productivity in total revenue passenger miles (RPM) flown to be profitable. When the ASM is filled with a fare-paying passenger, sales or income is recognized, and it converts to an RPM. The relationship between the ASM and RPM are directly related and is expressed in percentages known as Load Factors (LF). This LF is a management tool used to determine the efficiency and health of the airline. It is necessary to keep these two variables in balance of each other. Southwest Airlines load factors are represented in Figure 1 and 2. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã RPM LF = ASM Many airlines choose to use the hub network, which induces costly effects in all areas of the airline. It is the point-to-point; short haul airline that is capable of keeping costs low and turn profits, Southwest Airlines has proven just that. Southwest Airlines survived the initial years of deregulation, years of cyclical business cycles that may have led to recessionary and or inflationary periods, and its 25-year
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
Background of the Study Inventory is basically the total amount of goods and materials held in stock by a factory, store and other business. An inventory system is a process whereby a business keeps track of the goods and material it has available. In its simplest sense it can be done manually by a count at the end of each day. In this way it is possible to keep a record of the goods coming in to the business and goods being sold. The same case applies in KuyaÃ¢â¬â¢s Lumpiang Sariwa and as a result, the inventory system becomes prone to human error and would be more time consuming and security is also being risked. Since manual inventory consumes a lot of time and is susceptible to errors, it would be helpful to build a system that will automate the transactions from acquisition of the product description to updating the inventory database. The automated inventory system will improve employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ work efficiency by automating routinely and time consuming tasks such as the time spent in taking down product information. As a result, the time can be used in more productive activities. The accuracy of the current system will also be improved, since the automated inventory system would eliminate the need of constantly encoding lengthy details of products by having an inventory database. 1. 2 Statement of the Problem 1. 2. 1General Problem The inefficient rate of manually mandating a system or accessing manual inventory system is widely known due to the time consumed of manually recording of the transactions being done, security of data is at risk, and inaccuracy of data. The authors considered the problems encountered in using manual inventory system. Automated Inventory System| 1 1. 2. 2 Specific Problems 1. Time Consuming The inventory of materials is done manually in such a way that employee writes down the details of different materials every time a transaction is being done. These results, taking too much time. 2. Data Loss It defines to the unforeseen information. The possible root cause of data spill in KuyaÃ¢â¬â¢s Lumpiang Sariwa is the file drawer or cabinet which serves as their storage. If not properly secured, misplacement of data sheets and theft can take place due to security failure. 3. Prone to Errors The taking down of transactions encoded manually by the assigned employee to do the inventory would probably commit mistake. Inaccuracy of data is being risked. 1. 3 Objectives of the Study 1. 3. 1 General Objective The main objective of the proposed inventory system is to facilitate the inventory operation of KuyaÃ¢â¬â¢s Lumpiang Sariwa, thereby enhancing data monitoring to aim a more efficient system. 1. 3. 2 Specific Objectives 1. Minimize working time The automated inventory system will provide userfriendly interface that will lessen the job through user defined Automated Inventory System| 2 buttons. Tasks of the assigned employeeÃ¢â¬â¢ such as encoding of data details is easier and fast compared to the old system. 2. Improve security protection controls Security of inventory reports and other data information is not at risk due to the provided log-in window in database inventory system that will ask for a password secured by the administration. Employees that will do the inventory will have a complete access in the system; other employees cannot enter or access the automated system. Updating of passwords can be done. 3. Increase accuracy in data entry. Entry of data ensures accurate details of the material due to the built Ã¢â¬â in checks in the new system, as one of the systems features. It will eliminate errors such as Ã¢â¬Å"erase and replaceÃ¢â¬ . 1. 4 Significance of the Study The study will be a significant endeavor in promoting efficiency and more effective inventory system. By understanding and evaluating the need of the company, the employee as well as the administrators can be assured for a more productive and competitive system. The proposed system has been designed after depth study of the existing manual system. The new suggestions have been made, keeping in view the demand of the organization and their ultimate effectiveness. Computerized Inventory system has many advantages over the manual inventory system. Some of the features are as follows: ? The new system is more efficient as compared to the old system. ? Data entry task is easier and fast. ? There is no chance of entering wrong data, because there are all possible checks, which have been built in the system. Automated Inventory System| 3 ? The new computerized system is user friendly. A user having little knowledge about computer can run this system effectively. Moreover, the new system is designed in such a way as it can provide the user with facility of updating the data whenever required. 1. 5 Scope and Limitation The authorsÃ¢â¬â¢ of this study is centrally focused on the proposed inventory database system and does not include any other systems such as ordering system. Scope ? Data Manipulation such as adding, updating and deleting of data in the database to a more user friendly system. ? All reports can be generated automatically, at the press of a button. ? Ability to handle huge volumes of transactions without compromising on speed or efficiency. ?
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Women and Maturity in Eschenbachs Parzival Through the course of Wolfram von Eschenbachs epic romance Parzival, it becomes abundantly clear that the main characters, Parzival and Gawan, must attain some level of maturity or growth before they will be able to persevere in their personal quests. While their paths to maturity involve a great deal of combat and contests of knightly skill, it is their encounters with noble women that truly redefine their characters. Parzival is undeniably a romance. It contains all the typical components of an early romance: extravagant characters, remote and exotic places, highly exciting and heroic events, passionate love, and mysterious or supernatural experiences. As a romance alone, indeed,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Herzeloyde, having lost her beloved husband Gahmuret to knightly combat, shelters Parzival in an attempt to prevent him from entering knighthood. This sheltering forms the core of Parzivals initial innocence. His mothers attempts to hide knighthood from him results in his also knowing little to nothing about society, proper social behavior, and the class structure he must conform to. Thus, while Parzivals decision to enter the knighthood after meeting with several knights would seem to be the key event in establishing the initial plot of the tale, his mothers sheltering is truly the underlying theme for the first step in Parzivals growth. The next woman Parzival encounters in his quest is the Lady Jechute. Whereas Herzeloyde provided the forum for establishing Parzivals innocence, Jechute is clearly the forum for displaying his innocence. Prior and during their encounter Parzivals garb and speech are largely representative of his innocence: his poor clothing and plain language presents him as little more than an unlearned peasant. When Parzival encounters Jechute alone in her tent, he misinterprets advice given to him by his mother and rather violently wrestles with her before ultimately stealing her ring. In the course of their encounter, albeit brief, we see that Parzivals innocence, in part, manifests itself in a literal